Monograph Series No. 18

The Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology

Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University

No. 18

Megiddo III: The 1992–1996 Seasons

Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin and Baruch Halpern
Editors
Assistant Editor: Jared Miller

Contributions by:
Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin, Baruch Halpern, Daniella Bar-Yoseph Mayer, Itzhak Benenson, Israel Carmi, Eric H. Cline, Robert Deutsch, Lev Eppelbaum, Norma Franklin, Yuval Gadot, Yuval Goren, Rachel Hallote, Brian Hesse, David Ilan, Sonya Itkis, Alex Joffe, Adi Kafri, Ann Killebrew, Gunnar Lehmann, Ormi Lernau, Nili Liphschitz, Oded Lipschitz, Jennifer Peersmann, Benjamin Sass, Dror Segal, Paula Wapnish and Orna Zimhoni

Tel Aviv 2000


The remarkable results of several intensive seasons of renewed excavation by the current Expedition at Tel Megiddo are presented in this publication. The stratigraphy of the Early Bronze Age temple compound has been clarified and redated. The largest EB I temple in the Levant, with an extraordinary collection of animal remains in it, was unearthed. The lower mound, never properly explored by prior expeditions, has produced important new information. New light has been shed on one of the most hotly debated issues in biblical archaeology today—the chronology of Iron Age II. The conquest of this highly defended royal citadel of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians and its aftermath are clearly recorded. In order to make the important findings of the first seasons of renewed excavations available to scholars of general and biblical archaeology with as little delay as possible, the Megiddo Expedition made a concerted effort to collate and publish the results speedily. The wealth of material excavated and its significance are presented in these two volumes, which review the work of previous expeditions at the site and describe in detail the most recent work and its results. They constitute an essential reference for students and researchers alike.

Table of Contents

VOLUME I

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION: THE MEGIDDO EXPEDITION
Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin and Baruch Halpern

Chapter 2: THE MEGIDDO EXCAVATION DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Itzhak Benenson and Israel Finkelstein

PART ONE: STRATIGRAPHY AND ARCHITECTURE

Chapter 3: AREA J
Israel Finkelstein and David Ussishkin

Chapter 4: AREA F
David Ilan, Norma Franklin and Rachel S. Hallote

Chapter 5: AREA G: SOUNDINGS IN THE LATE BRONZE AGE GATE
David Ussishkin

Chapter 6: AREA K
Gunnar Lehmann, Ann Killebrew and Yuval Gadot

Chapter 7: AREA H
Alexander H. Joffe, Eric H. Cline and Oded Lipschitz

PART TWO: THE FINDS

Chapter 8: THE EARLY BRONZE AGE POTTERY FROM AREA J
Alexander H. Joffe

Chapter 9: THE MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE POTTERY FROM AREA F
David Ilan, Rachel S. Hallote and Eric H. Cline

Chapter 10: THE POTTERY FROM THE LATE BRONZE AGE GATE
Israel Finkelstein and Orna Zimhoni

Chapter 11: THE IRON AGE POTTERY ASSEMBLAGES FROM AREAS F, K AND H AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC AND CHRONOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
Israel Finkelstein, Orna Zimhoni and Adi Kafri

Index of Field Loci

VOLUME II

Chapter 12: THE SMALL FINDS
Benjamin Sass

Chapter 13: A ‘BABYLONIAN’ GRAVE FROM AREA F
Robert Deutsch

PART THREE: ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSICAL STUDIES

Chapter 14: MAMMAL REMAINS FROM THE EARLY BRONZE SACRED COMPOUND
Paula Wapnish and Brian Hesse

Chapter 15: FISH BONES
Omri Lernau

Chapter 16: MOLLUSC SHELLS
Daniella E. Bar-Yosef Mayer

Chapter 17: THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL FINDS
Nili Liphschitz

Chapter 18: TECHNOLOGY, PROVENIENCE AND INTERPRETATION OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE EGYPTIAN CERAMICS
Yuval Goren

Chapter 19: RADIOCARBON DATES
Israel Carmi and Dror Segal

Chapter 20: MAGNETIC INVESTIGATIONS IN THE PROTO-HISTORIC SITE TO THE EAST OF TEL MEGIDDO
Lev Eppelbaum and Sonya Itkis

PART FOUR: RELATED STUDIES

Chapter 21: RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY OF GALLERY 629 AND THE MEGIDDO WATER SYSTEM: A REASSESSMENT
Norma Franklin

Chapter 22: ASSYRIAN MAGIDDU: THE TOWN PLANNING OF STRATUM III
Jennifer Peersmann

PART FIVE: SUMMARY

Chapter 23: CENTRE AND SENTRY: MEGIDDO’S ROLE IN TRANSIT, ADMINISTRATION AND TRADE
Baruch Halpern

Chapter 24: ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS
Israel Finkelstein and David Ussishkin

Index of Field Loci

Introduction

Megiddo is widely regarded as one of Israel’s most important archaeological sites for the Bronze and Iron Ages. The site was excavated three times prior to the present Expedition and has yielded some of the richest finds ever uncovered in Israel.

Gottlieb Schumacher first probed the site in the years 1903-1905 on behalf of the German Society for Palestinian Research (Schumacher 1908; Watzinger 1929). In 1925 excavations at Megiddo were renewed by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. This undertaking continued until the outbreak of World War II in 1939, directed successively by CLAIREnce S. Fisher, P.L.O. Guy and Gordon Loud (Lamon 1935; May 1935; Guy 1938; Lamon and Shipton 1939; Loud 1939; Loud 1948). The Oriental Institute field project was the largest single excavation in the history of archaeological research in Israel (Fig. 1.1). Yigael Yadin carried out three short seasons of excavation at Megiddo in the 1960s and several limited soundings in the early 1970s on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in an attempt to clarify the complicated stratigraphic problems related to the Iron Age remains (Yadin 1970; for summary of the history of the site and the results of past excavations see Davies 1986; Kempinski 1989; Ussishkin 1992; Aharoni and Shiloh 1993).

These excavations at Megiddo laid the foundations for the archaeology of Israel in the Bronze and Iron Ages. The discoveries were impressive, but only a modest part of the site’s archaeological potential has been exploited. Furthermore, because most of the earlier investigations were undertaken when archaeological methods were still in their infancy, the stratigraphy, and thus the history, of the site have remained elusive. Almost every layer and major architectural feature has become a focus of fierce scholarly dispute. These problems have haunted the discipline for over half a century. They necessitated a revisiting of Megiddo.

In 1992, Israel Finkelstein and David Ussishkin took the initiative in launching a major, long-term excavation project at Megiddo on behalf of the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University. The scientific and operational framework of the excavation, including the organization of the Expedition’s international consortium was established during the two years preceding the first full-scale season at the site in 1994.

The Megiddo Expedition is undertaken under the auspices of Tel Aviv University, with Pennsylvania State University as the senior American partner. Consortium institutions are Loyola Marymount University and the University of Southern California.

The Expedition is directed by Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin and Baruch Halpern. Israel Finkelstein and David Ussishkin lead the excavation and Baruch Halpern heads the academic program in addition to acting as the co-ordinator of the consortium.

The Megiddo Expedition operates along three complementary avenues: First, renewed investigation in areas previously excavated, intended to deal with stratigraphic, chronological, architectural and historical problems that remained unsolved by former excavations. Because of the importance of the site, the clarification of these questions is expected to shed light on general aspects of the archaeology of Israel and the entire Levant. Second, opening new excavation areas utilizing modern methodology, which is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the material culture of Megiddo. Third, investigation of the settlement patterns in the vicinity of Megiddo in order to decipher the economic, political and social relationship between Megiddo as a royal city and its surrounding countryside.


ISBN 965-266-013-2, xxiv+631 pages, 347 maps, drawings and photographs.
Hard Cover. Price $795.00

MONOGRAPH SERIES OF THE SONIA AND MARCO NADLER INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY